Kashmir University Syllabus for Common Entrance Test Integrated BSc-MSc Botany.


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Srinagar (JKSA): University of Kashmir issued Syllabus for Common Entrance Test Integrated BSc-MSc Botany session 2023-24 on official website of University.

Information we got for an educational news portal JKSA -- JK STUDY ALERTS, Kashmir University on 22nd of August 2023 released Syllabus for Common Entrance Test Integrated BSc-MSc Botany.

The syllabus has been prepared after consulting CUET, CBSE and JK BOSE syllabi. Total 100 MCQs may be framed out of this syllabus or as deemed fit by the competent authority. Each question carries 1 mark.


Unit I: Structural Organization in Animals and Plants 

1. Morphology and modifications; Tissues; Anatomy and functions of different parts of flowering plants: Root, stem, leaf, inflorescence- cymose and recemose, flower, fruit and seed. 

2. Animal tissues; Morphology, anatomy and functions of different systems(digestive, circulatory, respiratory, nervous and reproductive) of an insect (cockroach). 

Unit II: Cell Structure and Function 

1. Cell theory and cell as the basic unit of life; Structure of prokaryotic and eukaryotic cell; Plant cell and animal cell; Cell envelope, cell membrane, cell wall; Cell organelles-structure and function; Endomembrane system-endoplasmic reticulum, Golgi bodies, lysosomes, vacuoles; mitochondria, ribosomes, plastids, micro bodies; Cytoskeleton, cilia, flagella, centrioles (ultra structure and function); Nucleus-nuclear membrane, chromatin, nucleolus. 

2. Chemical constituents of living cells: Biomolecules-structure and function of proteins, carbohydrates, lipids, nucleic acids; Enzymes-types, properties, enzymeaction.

3. Cell division: Cell cycle, mitosis, meiosis and their significance. 

Unit III: Plant Physiology 

1. Mineral nutrition: Essential minerals, macro and micronutrients and their role; Deficiency symptoms; Mineral toxicity; Elementary idea of Hydroponics as a method to study mineral nutrition; Nitrogen metabolism-Nitrogen cycle, biological nitrogen fixation. 

2. Photosynthesis: Photosynthesis as a means of Autotrophic nutrition; Site of photosynthesis take place; pigments involved in Photosynthesis (Elementary idea); Photochemical and biosynthetic phases of photosynthesis; Cyclic and non cyclic and photophosphorylation; Chemiosmotic hypothesis; Photorespiration C3 and C4 pathways; Factors affecting photosynthesis. 

3. Respiration: Exchange gases; Cellular respiration-glycolysis, fermentation (anaerobic), TCA cycle and electron transport system (aerobic); Energy relations- Number of ATP molecules generated; Amphibolic pathways; Respiratory quotient. 

Unit IV: Reproduction 

1. Reproduction in organisms: Modes of reproduction – Asexual and sexual; Asexual reproduction; Modes- Binary fission, sporulation, budding, gemmule, fragmentation; vegetative propagation in plants, micro-propagation. 

2. Sexual reproduction in flowering plants: Flower structure; Development of male and female gametophytes; Pollination–types, agencies and examples; Outbreeding devices; Pollen-Pistil interaction; Double fertilization; Post fertilization events– Development of endosperm and embryo, Development ofseed and formation of fruit; Special modes– apomixis, parthenocarpy, polyembryony; Significance ofseed and fruit formation. 

3. Human Reproduction: Male and female reproductive systems; Microscopic anatomy of testis and ovary; Gametogenesis- spermatogenesis & oogenesis; Menstrual cycle; Fertilization, embryo development up-to blastocyst formation, implantation; Pregnancy and placenta formation (Elementary idea); Parturition (Elementary idea); Lactation (Elementary idea). 

4. Reproductive health: Need for reproductive health and prevention of sexually transmitted diseases (STD);Birth control- Need and Methods, Contraception and Medical Termination of Pregnancy (MTP); Amniocentesis; Infertility and assisted reproductive technologies- IVF, ZIFT, GIFT (Elementary idea for general awareness). 

Unit V: Genetics and Evolution 

1. Heredity and variation: Mendelian Inheritance; Deviations from Mendelism- Incomplete dominance, Co-dominance, Multiple alleles and Inheritance of blood groups, Pleiotropy; Elementary idea of polygenic inheritance; Chromosome theory of inheritance; Chromosomes and genes; Sex determination- in humans, birds, honeybee; Linkage and crossing over; Sex linked inheritance- Haemophilia, Colour blindness; Mendelian disorders in humans- Thalassemia; Chromosomal disordersin humans; Down’ssyndrome, Turner’s and Klinefelter’ssyndromes. 

2. Molecular Basis of Inheritance: Search for genetic material and DNA as genetic material; Structure of DNA and RNA; DNA packaging; DNA replication; Central dogma; Transcription, genetic code, translation; Gene expression and regulation- Lac Operon; Genome and human genome project; DNA fingerprinting. 

3. Evolution: Origin of life; Biological evolution and evidences for biological evolution (Paleontological, comparative anatomy, embryology and molecular evidence); Darwin’s contribution, Modern Synthetic theory of Evolution; Mechanism of evolution- Variation (Mutation and Recombination) and Natural Selection with examples, types of natural selection; Gene flow and genetic drift; Hardy- Weinberg’s principle; Adaptive Radiation;Human evolution. 

Unit VI: Biology and Human Welfare 

1. Health and Disease: Pathogens; parasites causing human diseases (Malaria, Filariasis, Ascariasis, Typhoid, Pneumonia, common cold, amoebiasis, ring worm); Basic concepts of immunology– vaccines; Cancer, HIV and AIDs; Adolescence, drug and alcohol abuse. 

2. Improvement in food production: Plant breeding, inbreeding depression (basic idea), single cell protein, Bio-fortification; Apiculture and Animal husbandry. 

3. Microbes in human welfare: In house hold food processing, industrial production, sewage treatment, energy generation-biogas and as bio-control agents and biofertilizers. Over-view of Corona Virus, DNA & RNA viruses, concept of viroid, virion and prions. 

Unit VII: Biotechnology and its Applications 

1. Principles and process of Biotechnology: Genetic engineering (Recombinant DNA technology); tools of rDNA technology, vectors-plasmid, phage, BAC, YAC, animal and plant viral vectors. 

2. Restriction Enzymes, DNA ligase and alkaline phosphatase, introduction of recombinant NA into host cells, PCR. 

3. Application of Biotechnology in health and agriculture: Human insulin and vaccine production, gene therapy; genetically modified organisms- Bt crops; Transgenic Animals; Bio-safety issues- Biopiracy and patents; Agrobacterium-mediated transformation, crown gall disease in plants. 

4. Plant tissue culture: cellular totipotency, technique and application of tissue culture. 

Unit VIII: Ecology and environment 

1. Organisms and environment: Habitat and niche; Population and ecological adaptations; Population interactions– mutualism, competition, predation, parasitism; Population attributes– growth, birth rate and death rate, age distribution.

2. Ecosystems: Patterns, components; productivity and decomposition; Energy flow; Pyramids of number, biomass, energy; Nutrient cycling (carbon and phosphorous); Ecological succession; Ecological Services– Carbon fixation, pollination, oxygen release. 

3. Biodiversity and its conservation: Concept of Biodiversity; Patterns of Biodiversity; Importance of Biodiversity; Loss of Biodiversity; Biodiversity conservation; Hotspots, endangered organisms (plants & animals), extinction, Red Data Book, biosphere reserves, National parks and sanctuaries. 

4. Environmental issues: Air pollution and its control; Water pollution and its control; Agrochemicals and their effects; Solid waste management; radioactive waste management; Greenhouse effect and global warming; Ozone depletion; Deforestation; Some case studies as success stories addressing environmental issues.

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